DAS: The debtor’s panacea to bankruptcy?
First published in Scottish Legal News
Historically, in Scotland, if you were facing a creditor’s petition for sequestration, there was little to be done. Options under the Bankruptcy (Scotland) Act 1985 were limited. You either had to show it was not competent to award sequestration, or you had to be in a position to repay the debt in full or offer sufficient security for it.
For such reasons, over the years the threat of sequestration has been an invaluable tool in the debt recovery toolbox, especially in relation to debtors with assets that could be put at risk. The threat of an expired charge or the delivery of a statutory demand for payment was often sufficient to motivate the debtor into action.
Since 2004, however, the effectiveness of these debt recovery tools has been eroded with the Debt Arrangement Scheme. Under current regulations, introduced in July 2011, not only is it possible to defeat a creditor’s petition by applying for a Debt Payment Programme, but it’s also possible to prevent one being raised. This could provide an explanation why even in the last year the number of sequestrations awarded on the basis of creditor petitions has fallen by almost 25 per cent, despite the total number of sequestrations in the same period (2011/12) only having dropped by just 3 per cent.
The Debt Arrangement Scheme, however, is much more than a bankruptcy stopper. Launched in 2004, it suffered from a slow start, but last year saw over 3,300 programmes being approved by the Accountant in Bankruptcy in her capacity as DAS Administrator.
It is unique in that it provides individual debtors with a multiple debt remedy that is not a form of personal insolvency and does not require assets to vest in a trustee. It also prevents creditors using diligence or sequestration once a debtor is in a programme and freezes all interest, fees, penalties and charges. Other features are it provides a payment distribution service and an intimation procedure which can be used to obtain six weeks interim protection to allow an application to be made. It also is increasingly being used for not only consumer debts, but also for business debts by sole traders, partners and company directors, where personal guarantees have been provided for corporate loans.
In one recent case we acted in, a client who owned commercial property of significant value was cited to appear in front of a sheriff to show why sequestration should not be awarded. We assisted him in securing a continuation to allow an application to be made to the Debt Arrangement Scheme, which eventually was successful. The petition for his sequestration was dismissed and he was able to enter into a repayment programme with his creditors, allowing his assets to be protected.
In another case, a sole trade who employed six staff and ran a haulage firm was able to protect not only himself, his home, his business assets, but also his business and staff’s employment by applying for a programme.
In all cases, whether its business or consumer, the key is pulling together credible offers for creditors and presenting them as such. As with protected trust deeds, creditors get a right to object, but where none do, they are deemed to consent. Where creditor objections are received, the DAS Administrator applies a fair and reasonable test to see whether she believes it should be protected or not.
Increasingly, we are finding the use of discretionary conditions in applications, such as proposing assets will be realised during the scheme, is widening the availability to more clients, particularly business clients who would not be able to repay their debts within a fair and reasonable time (ten years being the maximum period accepted). Such proposals, however, do tend to take more planning and professional expertise to put realistic valuations on property; where businesses are involved it’s also necessary to ensure proposals are realistic and credible and will assist the business in not only surviving but flourishing.
For creditors, however, although the scheme may make sequestration harder to secure, it does provide more attractive returns. Even in the longest running scheme, it is likely at least 30p in the pound will be received back within the first three years: few bankruptcies will pay so much. The added benefit in this is even after three years, if the scheme has not been completed, the debtor continues paying.
The scheme is also increasingly been seen as a possible tool in the Scottish Parliament’s toolbox that could allow them to use it more effectively and deal with the growing problem of payday loans. Consumer credit law and interest rates are out with their legislative authority, but debt isn’t and Govan Law Centre’s principal solicitor, Mike Dailly has drawn up a discussion paper proposing a new payday loan, fast track, DAS programme.
The future for DAS is bright: the Scottish Government have indicated they are fully behind the Scheme and consider it a growing success and one they wish to encourage as an alternative to bankruptcy and protected trust deeds. From what I can see, they have already achieved that and, for once, I share their optimism.